Jaunsari tribes remained underdeveloped as they possessed a small amount of land and could not adapt to cultivation. They could hardly sustain their living through animal husbandry and a little from agricultural produce.
Jaunsar-Bawar region sprawls over 1002 km tribal valley which houses more than 400 villages. The Jaunsari tribe mainly consists of Khasas comprising Rajputs namely Rai, Rana, Chauhans, Tomar, Rawat, Negi, Rathore, Jhinkwan etc, Brahmins the high caste people comprising Sharma, Joshi, Nautiyal, Luhar, Bajgi are the middle caste people and Doom comprising Dalit, Kolta are the low caste people.
The Rajputs and Brahmins are landowners having high status in the society. The Luharas are artisans who work as ironsmiths and goldsmiths. The Bajgi are drummers who play drums in religious, social and cultural functions. The Kollandless are labors who work in the farms and houses of Khasa people. Khasa are the landholders and cultivators who are financially strong. Khasa people play a pivot role in the social, economic and political life of all sections of people. The Koltas are low caste people who work as menials and are treated as untouchables by the high caste people.
The Jaunsar-Bawar region is underdeveloped; the tribal people of Jaunsar live a solemn life and they have little or no interaction with the outside world. The plight of the tribal communities of Jaunsar-Bawar is such that there is dearth of education, there is no source of livelihood except animal husbandry, the people have little knowledge about the outside world, there are no motorable roads in Jaunsar and the lack of medical facilities have resulted in the death of a number of people. Hence, the tribal people of Jaunsar have lagged behind. The present scenario can only be changed if development takes place in Jaunsar which is only possible if the government takes effective measures for the rapid growth of this region.
While our country is emerging as ‘Digital India’ there is hardly anybody in Jaunsar who can boast about digitization and debate on the matter as they are deprived of such facilities. Therefore, new technology should be introduced in the region for fostering growth. The nation can only progress if it focuses on the growth of vulnerable areas as they are the ones who are in dire need of development.
In 2005, the practice of bonded labor was reported again in Jaunsar-Bawar region. According to the report those who were working as bonded labors belonged to the poorest local communities like Koltas, Das, and Bajgi. These tribal communities were the victims of malpractice of bonded labor for generations which was being practiced by their richer counterparts. Hence, the government made a separate legislation for this area due to non-availability of local land records. Therefore, The Jaunsar Bawar Zamindar Abolition of Land Reform Act 1956 (U.P. Act XI of 1956) came into form in July 1961. This is a matter of concern that despite concerted action for the last five decades, the curse of bondage still persists. Bonded labor is worse than untouchability. It stands abolished under our constitution and clearly indicates the violation of human rights. Similarly, the problem of indebtedness has been widely ruining the economy of the tribal people which has lead to bonded labor, land alienation and forcing them to live in acute poverty.
About 47.55% population in India is accounted for non-scheduled tribes and denotified tribes as Jaunsari are about 85.23%. The tribes have suffered from economic devastation due to ecological changes brought by rapid development in tribal areas. This has made their survival extremely difficult despite their incessant efforts at adapting under changing circumstances which has resulted in unemployment, women’s drudgery, dislocation and rupture of tribal socio-cultural life and value system. The construction of dams and hydro-electric power projects has threatened indigenous people which have resulted in migration. Thus, the degraded environment and the prevailing development process has not only damaged the culture of tribals in India but have also affected the traditional sources of livelihood of tribal people. The rampant growth and development process has lead to cutting down of forests which has hindered the source of livelihood of Jaunsari tribes who are engaged in making medicines from the medicinal properties found in the varied plants of Jaunsar-Bawar region.